Biomethane production costs for anaerobic digestion in Europe have a large spread; €49/MWh to €90/MWh (~€0.50/m3 to €0.90/m3), mainly depending on feedstock and digester size. The production cost for thermal gasification, in contrast, is estimated around €90-€100/MWh (~€1.0/m3). Costs are gradually coming down for larger plants with certain waste stream feedstocks.
The cost drivers for biogas production include capital and operational costs, the size of the digester, the production technique, and the feedstock cost (Table 2‑1). Biomethane production costs additionally include the cost of the upgrading unit.
Table 2‑1. Overview of the cost values (2018) for the most important parameters in biomethane anaerobic digestion production process. Source: (IEA, 2020c)
|Technology||Size digester (Nm3/hr)||CAPEX (€/MWh) biogas digester*||OPEX (€/MWh) biogas digester*||Biogas to bio-methane upgrading (EUR/MWh)||Feedstock cost (EUR/tDM)||Maturity level|
|Small anaerobic digestion||100||25||22||2 – 4||
0 – 120
Average in Europe:1
|Medium anaerobic digestion||500||20||17|
|Large anaerobic digestion||1000||15||12|
|Very large||>2000-3000||Not available2||Not available53|
* costs converted from USD/MBtu and rounded, with 1 USD = 0.85 EUR.