2. Supply of renewable and low carbon gases

The supply of renewable and low-carbon gases comprises renewable gas production and conversion technologies as well as renewable and low-carbon feedstock. Two main renewable and low-carbon gases will play a key role in decarbonising the European energy system: biomethane and green or blue hydrogen. In the short term, biomethane is expected to further scale-up; green and blue hydrogen are expected to further develop to accelerate scale-up starting in the mid-2020s.

This chapter identifies key trends regarding biomethane and green and blue hydrogen supply following the approach laid out in chapter 1. The following sections detail each key trend and indicate the status of each key trend towards achieving the required pathway developments in the early 2020s-2030.²

A significant biogas sector exists in Europe, with production around 170 TWh/year in 2018 (16 bcm natural gas equivalent).², ⁵ Biomethane production is rapidly growing. In 2018, around 23 TWh (~2 bcm natural gas equivalent) of biomethane was produced in Europe.⁵

This section details the key trends regarding biomethane supply. In the early 2020s, developments will focus on scaling up biomethane production to increase supply in Europe from approximately 23 TWh in 2018 to 300-370 TWh in 2030.

This increase is achieved through the further development and scale-up of gasification and digestor technologies, developments in feedstock, increased production and deployment of installations, and emerging cost reductions. The required developments to supply biomethane are translated into key trends around technology, feedstock, production cost, deployment and production, and market and are supported by showcase projects (Figure 2.1). The following paragraphs detail each key trend and indicate the status of each key trend towards achieving the critical decarbonisation timeline in the early 2020s-2030.²

This section details the key trends regarding green and blue hydrogen supply. In the early 2020s, developments will focus on kicking off developments in green and blue hydrogen supply to develop 85 TWh blue hydrogen and at least 100 TWh green hydrogen supply by 2030. This will be possible by further developing and scaling up production technologies and renewable electricity, and increasing production and deployment, thus enabling cost reductions.

The required developments to supply green and blue hydrogen are translated into key trends around technology, feedstock, production cost, deployment and production, and market, each supported by showcase projects (Figure 2.19). The following paragraphs detail each key trend and indicate the status of each trend towards achieving the critical decarbonisation timeline in the early 2020s-2030.

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