Footnotes

1) All reports can be downloaded from the Gas for Climate consortium webpage at https://gasforclimate2050.eu/

2) Guidehouse. (2020). Gas for Climate, Gas decarbonization pathways 2020-2050. Retrieved from https://gasforclimate2050.eu/?smd_process_download=1&download_id=339

3) All reports can be downloaded from the Gas for Climate consortium webpage at https://gasforclimate2050.eu/.

4) This report defines waste and residue feedstocks as a combination of the (GIE and EBA, 2020) agricultural residues, manure and plant residues, industrial organic waste from food and beverage industries, sewage sludge and waste, bio-and municipal waste, and landfill.

5) EBA. (2019). Statistical report: European Overview 2019. Retrieved from https://www.europeanbiogas.eu/eba-statistical-report-2019/

6) Navigant. (2019). Gas for Climate – The optimal role for gas in a net-zero emissions energy system. Retrieved from https://gasforclimate2050.eu/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/Navigant-Gas-for-Climate-The-optimal-role-for-gas-in-a-net-zero-emissions-energy-system-March-2019.pdf

7) Ecofys. (2018). Gas for Climate – How gas can help to achieve the Paris Agreement target in an affordable way. Retrieved from https://gasforclimate2050.eu/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/Ecofys-Gas-for-Climate-Report-Study-March18.pdf

8) European CEN standards exists on the blending of biomethane in natural gas (EN 16723-1:2016 for the injection of biomethane in the natural gas grid). In addition, country-specific methane content and gas quality standards for grid injection exist. For example, in some countries, most notably the Netherlands, Germany, and Belgium, the methane content of gas is about 80% in part of the gas grid due to the production of low calorific gas in Groningen. The biomethane used in these countries should have a methane content of 85% instead of 97% for injection in the low calorific gas grid. Groningen gas extraction will be phased out by 2030. (Navigant, 2019)

9) IEA. (2020). Hydrogen Projects Database. Retrieved from https://www.iea.org/reports/hydrogen-projects-database

10) CEN developed a standard for biomethane specification to enable its injection in gas grids, published in 2016. (European Committee for Standardisation (CEN))

11) Florence School of Regulation. (2018). What is renewable gas? Retrieved from https://fsr.eui.eu/what-is-renewable-gas/

12) (Ecofys, 2018); Biogas yields are retrieved from http://publications.jrc.ec.europa.eu/repository/bitstream/JRC104759/ld1a27215enn.pdf and are adjusted for biomethane content of 55% in biogas. With a large share of maize and triticale in the mix, it is not completely implausible to assume that the yield would increase towards the high end of the range.

13) IEA Bioenergy. (2019). Status report on thermal gasification of biomass and waste 2019 – IEA Bioenergy Task 33 special report.

14) REGATRACE. (2020). D6.1 – Mapping the state of play of renewable gases in Europe. Retrieved from https://www.regatrace.eu/wp-content/uploads/2020/02/REGATRACE-D6.1.pdf

15) torrgas. (2020). Torrgas opens worlds first modular bio-syngas plant. Retrieved from http://torrgas.nl/

16) Gasunie. (2019). Innovative gasification technologies supported by Gasunie NEw Energy in the Netherlands. Retrieved from https://www.en-tran-ce.org/custom/uploads/2019/11/P3.3-Theelen.pdf

17) Wet anaerobic digestion uses feedstock with at most a 10%-20% share of dry matter in contrast to dry anaerobic digestion, which uses feedstock with at least 20%-40% share of dry matter. Dry digestion allows feedstock with a high content of dry matter such as crop residues, household waste, and livestock manure compared to wet digestion, which limits the share of dry feedstock it can process. Advantages of dry digestion include lower energy and water use, but it requires feedstock loading and unloading technologies and results in batch production. Advantages of wet digestion include lower costs of investment and operations and maintenance as well as a greater flexibility in the use of feedstock. However, it requires the use of liquid and mixing equipment to prepare the feedstock and consequentially, higher energy use. (Biogas World, 2018).

18) Dry anaerobic digestion can produce in a continuous or batch system. In batch systems, the digestion process is determined by the feedstock loading and unloading actions. Dry digestion can be continuous when several digestors operate in parallel to allow a constant level of production. (Biogas World, 2018).

19) Biogas output. Guidehouse assumed a biogas LHV of 19.5 MJ/m³ and a biomethane LHV of 34.7 MJ/m³, which is calculated using LHV (50 MJ/kg) of raw biogas as included in the EU RED Annex III, corrected for biogas impurities and CO₂ content. The biomethane LHV is slightly higher than the 33 MJ used in the previous 2018 Gas for Climate study, in which we calculated at room conditions being 24°C and 1 bar rather than the more widely used standard conditions, being 0°C and 1 bar.

20) (IEA, 2020a); EBA in-house analysis, 2020

21) EnergiForsk. (2016). Biogas upgrading – TEchnical review (Report: 2016:275). Retrieved from https://energiforskmedia.blob.core.windows.net/media/22326/biogas-upgrading-technical-review-energiforskrapport-2016-275.pdf

22) Adnan, A., Ong, M. N., Chew, K., & Show, P. (2019). Technologies for biogas upgrading to biomethane: A review. Bioengineering, 6(4), 92. doi:https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering6040092

23) EBA in-house analysis, 2020

24) GIE and EBA. (2020). European Biomethane Map. Retrieved from https://www.gie.eu/index.php/gie-publications/maps-data/bio-map/

25) The EU introduced mandatory sustainability criteria for biofuels and biogas in the 2009 EU Renewable Energy Directive (RED) in response to growing concerns and the public debate on bioenergy sustainability. These sustainability criteria are updated and expanded to woody bioenergy in the revised RED II Directive. The positions of various stakeholders in the debate can be viewed in three European Commission consultations on the topic.
https://ec.europa.eu/energy/en/consultations/preparation-sustainable-bioenergy-policy-period-after-2020
https://ec.europa.eu/energy/en/consultations/preparation-report-additional-sustainabilitymeasures-solid-and-gaseous-biomass-used
https://ec.europa.eu/energy/en/consultations/indirect-land-use-change-and-biofuels, see further: http://task38.org/Sustainability_updated_2009.pdf

26) Waste and residue feedstocks in this report include (see Box 2): agricultural residues, manure and plant residues; industrial organic waste from food and beverages industries, sewage sludge and waste; bio-and municipal waste; and landfill following the definitions of (GIE and EBA, 2020)

27) The Oxford Institute for Energy Studies. (2019). A mountain to climb? – Tracking progress in scaling up renewable gas production in Europe. Retrieved from https://www.oxfordenergy.org/wpcms/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/A-mountain-to-climb-Tracking-progress-in-scaling-up-renewable-gas-production-in-Europe-NG-153.pdf

28) The same trend can be seen when looking at total production capacity (m³/hr) rather than total number of plants in the EU. Reach a total of approximately 57% of cumulative production capacity in the EU based on agricultural and municipal waste stream feedstocks.

29) Estimates for landfill gas recovery systems ~2,000 m³/hr include €2.32/MWh CAPEX and €4.64/MWh OPEX. (IEA, 2020a). Costs converted from USD/MBtu and rounded with $1 = €0.85.

30) EBA. (2019c). Biogas Basics. Retrieved from Basics. https://www.europeanbiogas.eu/wp-content/uploads/2019/08/Biogas-Basics-v6.pdf

31) Chalmers University of Technology. (2018). GoBiGas demonstration – a vital step for a large-scale transition from fossil fuels to advanced biofuels and electro fuels. Retrieved from https://www.chalmers.se/SiteCollectionDocuments/SEE/News/Popularreport_GoBiGas_results_highres.

32) The cost figures are slightly lower than what is reported in the cited reference because these costs are recalibrated using a social discount rate of 5%.

34) This section is largely based on the statistical data provided by the EBA. The trends focus on the current status in European or EU27 countries at the end of 2018, unless otherwise indicated.

35) European Commission, 2020a

36) Based on data from (GIE and EBA, 2020)

37) DENA. (2020). dena-ANALYSE: Branchenbarometer Biomethan 2020. Retrieved from https://www.dena.de/fileadmin/dena/Publikationen/PDFs/2020/Brachenbarometer_Biomethan_2020.pdf

38) Energinet. (2020). CERTIFIKATER PÅ BIOGAS I TAL. Retrieved from https://energinet.dk/Gas/Biogas/Certifikater-i-tal

39) Energigas Sverige. (2020). Biogas Statistics. Retrieved from https://www.energigas.se/fakta-om-gas/biogas/statistik-om-biogas/

40) CEN – European Committee of Standaridsation. (2016). New CEN Standards – Biomethane standards to mitigate climate change. Retrieved from https://www.cen.eu/news/brief-news/Pages/NEWS-2018-016.aspx

41) (AIB – Association of Issuing Bodies, 2020)

42) ERGaR. (2020). European Renewable Gas Registry. Retrieved from http://www.ergar.org/

43) ERGaR. (2020b). ERGaR CoO Scheme. Retrieved from http://www.ergar.org/ergar-coo-scheme/

44) REGATRACE. (2020). D6.1 – Mapping the state of play of renewable gases in Europe. Retrieved from https://www.regatrace.eu/wp-content/uploads/2020/02/REGATRACE-D6.1.pdf

45) REGATRACE. (2020b). D3.1: Guidelines for establishing national biomethane registries. Retrieved from https://www.regatrace.eu/wp-content/uploads/2019/11/REGATRACE-D3.1.pdf

46) (Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking, 2019)

47) Hydrogen Europe. (2020). Strategic Research and Innovation Agenda. Retrieved from https://hydrogeneurope.eu/sites/default/files/20200703%20Final%20Draft%20updated%20SRIA%20HE-HER.pdf

48) (DENA, 2019)

49) Hydrogen Europe. (2020b). Hydrogen Europe: projects. Retrieved from https://hydrogeneurope.eu/projects

50) Excluding steam input

51) Thyssen Krupp. (2020). Green hydrogen: thyssenkrupp expands production capacities for water electrolysis to gigawatt scale. Retrieved from https://www.thyssenkrupp.com/en/newsroom/press-releases/pressdetailpage/green-hydrogen–thyssenkrupp-expands-production-capacities-for-water-electrolysis-to-gigawatt-scale-82759

52) Thyssen Krupp. (2020b). Thyssenkrupp’s water electrolysis technology qualified as primary control reserve – E.ON and thyssenkrupp bring hydrogen production to the electricity market. Retrieved from https://www.thyssenkrupp.com/en/newsroom/press-releases/pressdetailpage/thyssenkrupps-water-electrolysis-technology-qualified-as-primary-control-reserve–eon-and-thyssenkrupp-bring-hydrogen-production-to-the-electricity-market-83355

53) Nel. (2018). Nel planning new 360 MW electrolyser plant. Retrieved from https://www.electrive.com/2018/09/03/nel-planning-new-360-mw-electrolyzer-manufacturing-plant/

54) McPhy. (2020). McPhy Announces the Success of its Capital Increase. Retrieved from https://mcphy.com/en/press-releases/mcphy-announces-the-success-of-its-capital-increase/

55) Refhyne. (2020). Construction is progressing well at the REFHYNE site. Retrieved from https://refhyne.eu/construction-progressing-at-the-refhyne-site/

56) ITM Power. (2019). New Factory Update and Senior Production Appointment. Retrieved from https://www.itm-power.com/news/new-factory-update-and-senior-production-appointment

57) ASSET study. (2018). Sectoral integration – long-term perspective in the EU energy system. Retrieved from https://ec.europa.eu/energy/sites/ener/files/documents/final_draft_asset_study_12

58) Sunfire. (2020). GRINHY2.0: Sunfire delivers the world’s largest high-temperatur electrolyzer to Salzgitter Flachstahl. Retrieved from https://www.sunfire.de/en/company/news/detail/grinhy2-0-sunfire-delivers-the-worlds-largest-high-temperatur-electrolyzer-to-salzgitter-flachstahl

59) (Nordic GTL, 2019)

60) Enapter. (2020). About Us. Retrieved from https://www.enapter.com/about

61) Enapter. (2020). Enapter Chooses Germany for Electrolyser Mass-Production Site. Retrieved from https://www.enapter.com/press-release/enapter-chooses-germany-for-electrolyser-mass-production-site

62) (IRENA, 2018)

64) Guidehouse, based on IEA hydrogen database, 2020; (IEA, 2020)

63) (Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking, 2018)

65) (Schneider, Bjohr, Graf, & Kolb, 2020)

66) U.S. Department of Energy. (n.d.). Hydrogen Production: Natural Gas Reforming. Retrieved from https://www.energy.gov/eere/fuelcells/hydrogen-production-natural-gas-reforming

67) H2tools. (2015). Merchant Hydrogen Plant Capacities in Europe. Retrieved from https://h2tools.org/hyarc/hydrogen-data/merchant-hydrogen-plant-capacities-europe

68) Upstream emissions from natural gas production and distribution are still present, leading to a higher GHG intensity compared to green hydrogen even when all direct plant emissions are abated.

69) (Edwards R.; Larive J.-F.; Beziat J.-C., 2011)

70) (J.M. Ogden, 2001)

71) ASSET study. (2020). Hydrogen generation in Europe: Overview of costs and key benefits. Retrieved from https://op.europa.eu/en/publication-detail/-/publication/7e4afa7d-d077-11ea-adf7-01aa75ed71a1

72) (IEA, 2017a)

73) (D., Jakobsen; V., Åtland, 2016)

74) (Antonini, et al., 2020)

75) (Air Liquide, 2019)

76) (Deltalings – H-vision, 2019)

77) Eneco. (2020). Plan for wind energy to power Rotterdam green hydrogen plant. Retrieved from https://news.eneco.com/wind-energy-to-power-rotterdam-green-hydrogen-plant/

78) Orsted. (2020). Ørsted and Yara seek to develop groundbreaking green ammonia project in the Netherlands. Retrieved from https://orsted.com/en/media/newsroom/news/2020/10/143404185982536

79) Hydrogen Europe. (2020). Strategic Research and Innovation Agenda. Retrieved from https://hydrogeneurope.eu/sites/default/files/20200703%20Final%20Draft%20updated%20SRIA%20HE-HER.pdf

80) (European Commission, 2018)

81) Capital costs are based on 100 MW production volume for a single company and on a 10-year system lifetime running in steady state operation. Stack replacements are not included in the capital cost. Costs are for installation on a pre-prepared site (fundament/building and necessary connections are available). Transformers and rectifiers are to be included in the capital cost.

82) (Hydrogen Council, 2017)

83) (Bloomberg, 2019)

84) Guidehouse analysis based on discussions with electrolyser manufacturers, 2020

85) Guidehouse analysis based on surveys with electrolyser producers, 2020

86) This range is based on a lower range value from (Guidehouse, 2020)

90) Prices based on natural gas price around of €15/MWh and a scale of 300 MWin or 500 t H₂ per day. (Guidehouse, 2020)

89) (CME Group, 2020)

88) These estimates take into account significant cost reductions for CAPEX, RES costs, and increased load hours and efficiencies. (Guidehouse, 2020)

87) (Hydrogen Europe, 2020a), which includes small-scale pilot projects.

91) (Topsector Energy, 2020)

92) (H-vision, 2019)

93) (Air Liquide, 2020a); (Air Liquide, 2020b)

94) (European Commission, 2020b)

99) JRC. (2019). The potential role of H2 production in a sustainable future power system. Retrieved from https://publications.jrc.ec.europa.eu/repository/bitstream/JRC115958/kjna29695en

98) Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Observatory. (2020). Chapter 2: Hydrogen molecule market. Retrieved from https://www.fchobservatory.eu/sites/default/files/reports/Chapter_2_Hydrogen

97) S&P Global, Platts. (2020). Hydrogen overview: Market Perspectives and Production Pathways.

96) Eurostat. (2020). Total production of grey hydrogen. Retrieved from http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=DS-066342&lang=en

95) This is assuming direct plant emissions of 10 tCO₂/t H₂ (EU ETS benchmark is 8.85 tCO₂/t H₂) and an EU ETS price of €30/tCO₂.

100) IEA. (2020). Hydrogen Projects Database. Retrieved from https://www.iea.org/reports/hydrogen-projects-database

101) 2020/389, Amending Regulation (EU) No 347/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards the Union list of projects of common interest (2019), https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32020R0389&from=en

102) (OGE, 2020)

103) (Offshore Energy, 2020)

105) EU carbon prices could average €35-€40/tCO₂ over the period 2019-2023. Source: Carbon Tracker, 2018. Carbon Countdown – Prices and Politics in the EU-ETS.

106) Ludwig Bolkow Systemtechnik. (2020). International hydrogen strategies: a study commissioned by and in cooperation with the World Energy Council Germany.

107) (European Commission, 2020c)

111) Inland consumption in 2018 in net calorific values based on Eurostat, Supply, transformation and consumption of gas [nrg_cb_gas].

110) FCH. (2019). Towards a Dual Hydrogen Certification System for Guarantees of Origin and for the Certification of Renewable Hydrogen in Transport and for Heating & Cooling. Final Report of Phase 2. Retrieved from https://www.fch.europa.eu/sites/default/files/documents/280120_Final_Report_CertifHy_publishing%20approved_publishing%20%28ID%207924419%29%20%28ID%207929219%29.pdf

109) CertifHy. (2019b). CertifHy – Developing the 1st EU-wide Guarantee of Origin scheme for premium hydrogen. Retrieved from https://www.certifhy.eu/images/media/files/CertifHy_Presentation_short_final_lowres.pdf

108) CertifHy. (2019). Towards a new Hydrogen market – CertifHy Green Hydrogen Guarantees of Origin are launched. Retrieved from https://www.certifhy.eu/news-events/169-towards-a-new-hydrogen-market-certifhy-green-hydrogen-guarantees-of-origins-are-launched.html

112) Inland consumption in 2018 in net calorific values based on Eurostat, Supply, transformation and consumption of gas [nrg_cb_gas].

113) The remaining hydrogen production is predominantly used to generate heat.

114) CertifHy. (2015). Overview of the market segmentation for hydrogen across potential customer groups, based on key application areas. Retrieved from https://www.certifhy.eu/images/D1_2_Overview_of_the_market_segmentation_Final_22_June_low-res.pdf

115) Ibid

118) (Liquid Wind, 2020)

117) (Carbon Recycling International, 2011)

119) (H2Future, 2020); (HYBRIT, 2020); (GrInHy2.0, 2020)

120) Baena-Moreno, Pastor-Perez, Wang, & Reina, 2020); (ETIP Bioenergy, 2020)

121) (TESCO Ireland, 2020)

122) Linkoping University. (2019). Biogas can increase the capacity of pulp and paper mills. Retrieved from https://liu.se/en/news-item/biogas-okar-pappers–och-massabrukens-kapacitet

123) (EffiSludge, 2020)

124) Guidehouse analysis based on Eurostat, Motor coaches, buses and trolley buses, by type of vehicle, 2020. https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/databrowser/view/road_eqs_busveh/default/table?lang=en

125) Exceeding 3.5 tons gross weight.

126) Guidehouse analysis based on Eurostat, Lorries and road tractors, by age, 2020. https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/en/web/products-datasets/-/ROAD_EQS_LORROA

127) European Alternative fuels Observatory. (2020). AF fleet (2020); AF new registrations (2020). Retrieved from https://www.eafo.eu/vehicles-and-fleet/n2-n3

128) Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Observatory. (2020). Chapter 2: Hydrogen molecule market. Retrieved from https://www.fchobservatory.eu/sites/default/files/reports/Chapter_2_Hydrogen_Molecule_Market_070920.pdf

129) Horizon Europe, Strategic Research and Innovation Agenda, 2019.

132) (NGVA Europe, 2020b)

131) (NGVA, 2020a)

130) (Fuel Cell Electric Buses – knowledge database, 2020)

134) DNV GL. (2018). Alternative fuels and technologies for greener shipping. Retrieved from https://hydrogeneurope.eu/sites/default/files/2018-04/DNV_GL_Executive-Summary-Alt-Fuels_guidance_paper_2018-04_web.pdf

133) International Maritime Organisation. (2020). Sulphur 2020 – Cutting sulphur oxide emissions. Retrieved from http://www.imo.org/en/MediaCentre/HotTopics/Pages/Sulphur-2020.aspx

142) (McKinlay, Turnock, & Hudson, 2020)

141) (NavalTechnology, 2020)

140) (Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking, 2020b)

139) (Argus Media, 2020)

138) (GreenPort, 2020)

137) NGV Journal. (2019). Bio-LNG bunkering services now available in the Port of Gothenburg. Retrieved from http://www.ngvjournal.com/s1-news/c7-lng-h2-blends/swedegas-fordonsgas-sign-agreement-to-bring-bio-lng-to-gothenburg/

136) European Commission. (2016). Liquefied Natural Gas and Gas Storage will boost EU’s energy security. Retrieved from https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/sv/MEMO_16_310

135) On inland shipping no statistics are available

143) (EUR-lex, 2014)

144) (European Commission, 2020d)

145) (European Commission, 2020d): “Building codes with specific regulation on thermal insulation of the building envelope started appearing after the 1970s in Europe. This means that a large share of today’s EU building stock was built without any energy performance requirement: one third (35%) of the EU building stock is over 50 years old, more than 40% of the building stock was built before 1960. Almost 75% of it is energy inefficient according to current building standards.” Source: JRC report, Achieving the cost effective energy transformation of Europe’s buildings.

146) BPIE. (2017). What is the state of the EU building stock? Retrieved from https://www.bpie.eu/knowledge-hub/#ongoing-projects.

149) For example, the Netherlands has a huge natural gas resource in the northern part of the country.

148) Based on data from heatroadmaps.eu for 2018, available at: https://heatroadmap.eu/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/HRE4-Exchange-Template-WP3_v22b_website.xlsx and internal analysis.
Cooling demand assumed to be negligible.

147) Energy renovations are applied in various depths like light, medium, and deep renovation. The weighted energy renovation rate describes the annual reduction of primary energy consumption within the total stock of buildings (residential or nonresidential, respectively) for heating, ventilation, domestic hot water, lighting (only nonresidential buildings), and auxiliary energy achieved through the sum of energy renovations of all depths.

150) Based on data from heatroadmaps.eu for 2018, available at: https://heatroadmap.eu/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/HRE4-Exchange-Template-WP3_v22b_website.xlsx and internal analysis.
Cooling demand assumed to be negligible.

151) Hydrogen Europe. (2019b). Hydrogen Europe Vision on the role of Hydrogen and Gas infrastructure on the Road toward a Climate Neutral Economy – A contribution to the Transition of the Gas Market. Retrieved from https://ec.europa.eu/info/sites/info/files/hydrogen_europe_-_vision_on_the_role_of_hydrogen_and_gas_infrastructure.pdf

152) Step-by-step measures or renovations means renovations are done over a couple of years with individual building components—e.g. one year the roof, another year the windows, and another year the heating system. This type of renovation is in contrast to one where multiple (or all) building components are renovated at the same time.

153) European Commission. (2019). Accelerating energy renovation investments in buildings. Retrieved from https://ec.europa.eu/jrc/en/publication/eur-scientific-and-technical-research-reports/accelerating-energy-renovation-investments-buildings

154) Ipsos and Navigant. (2019). Comprehensive study of building energy renovation activities and the uptake of nearly zero-energy buildings in the EU. Retrieved from https://ec.europa.eu/energy/sites/ener/files/documents/1.final_report.pdf.

155) IEA. (2020c). Heat Pumps. Retrieved from https://www.iea.org/reports/heat-pump

156) European Heat Pump Association. (2020). Resources. Retrieved from https://www.ehpa.org/market-data/

162) (West Grid Synergy, 2020)

161) European Commission. (2019). Impact of the use of the biomethane and hydrogen potential on trans-European infrastructure – final report. Retrieved from https://www.europeangashub.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/11/Trinomics-biomethane-and-hydrogen-study.pdf

160) Green Gas Grids. (2013). Biomethane Guide for Decision Makers – Policy guide on biogas injection into the natural gas grid (WP2/D2.3). Retrieved from https://www.dena.de/fileadmin/dena/Dokumente/Themen_und_Projekte/Erneuerbare_Energien/GreenGasGrids/Policy_Guide_for_Decision_Makers.pdf

159) (Vermeulen, 2017)

158) Quantity reported in net calorific value, equalling about 5,000 TWh in gross calorific value. Eurostat, Natural gas supply statistics, gross inland consumption of natural gas in 2018. Total EU energy consumption in 2017 was 1,675 Mtoe or around 19,000 TWh. Eurostat: https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Natural_gas_supply_statistics

157) EHPA Stats. (2020). Heat pump sales overview. Retrieved from http://stats.ehpa.org/hp_sales/story_sales/

164) Green Gas Initiative. (2017). Biomethane – Naturally Green Gas. Retrieved from https://www.greengasinitiative.eu/upload/contenu/ggi-biomethane_report_062017_1.pdf

165) (Enexis group, 2019)

166) Ontras Gastransport GmbH. (2020). Using BIogas as a source of green energy. Retrieved from https://www.ontras.com/en/company/translate-to-englisch-ontras-going-green/translate-to-englisch-unsere-projekte

167) (GRT Gaz et al., 2019); (National Renewable Energy Laboratory; M.W. Melaina, O. Antonia, M.Penev, 2013)

168) (THyGA, 2020)

169) (Avacon, 2020)

170) (H21 Projects, 2020)

171) (Hidrogeno Aragon, 2020)

172) (GRTgaz, 2020)

173) The 10% limit in Germany applies to networks to which no CNG fuelling stations are connected. The 1% for Italy is specified in SNAM’s network code: https://www.snam.it/export/sites/snam-rp/repository-srg/file/it/business-servizi/codice-rete-tariffe/Codice_di_rete/Codice_di_Rete/Capitoli_e_allegati/ALLEGATI/allegato_11_A_RevLXXII.pdf

174) Based on Guidehouse information and IEA, The future of hydrogen, 2019 & Journal of Hydrogen, Incentives and legal barriers for Power-to-Hydrogen pathways: An international snapshot, 2019 & Energy and Environmental Science, the role of hydrogen and fuel cells in the global energy System, 2019 & Hylaw online database, 2020, https://www.hylaw.eu/database

175) (Hydrogen Tools, 2016)

176) (Hydrogen Europe, 2016) referring to (Hydrogen Tools, 2016)

177) (Air Liquide, 2009)

178) (Leeds City Gate, 2017) The H21 report assumes upfront conversion of the distribution network to a hydrogen-ready grid through a modernisation programme that is due to be undertaken. See (Leeds CIty Gate h21)

179) (Enagás, Energinet, Fluxys Belgium, Gasunie, GRTgaz, NET4GAS, OGE, ONTRAS, Snam, Swedegas, Teréga, 2020)

184) Inland consumption in 2018 in net calorific values based on Eurostat, “Supply, transformation and consumption of gas [nrg_cb_gas].” https://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=nrg_cb_gas&lang=en

183) Caglayan, D. G., Weber, N., Heinrichs, H. U., Linßen, J., Robinius, M., Kukla, P. A., & Detlef Stolten. (2020). Technical potential of salt caverns for hydrogen storage in Europe. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 45(11), 6793-6805. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2019.12.161

181) Gasunie. (2018). Waterstofleiding Gasunie van Dow naar Yara in gebruik genomen. Retrieved from https://www.gasunie.nl/nieuws/waterstofleiding-gasunie-van-dow-naar-yara-in-gebruik-genomen

180) Note that the range varies significantly depending on pipeline diameter. See the European Hydrogen Backbone study for further details.

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